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    Techniques for Meats, Poultry, Fish, and Shellfish

    Techniques for Meats, Poultry, Fish, and Shellfish
    More than 200 types of fish are caught in and around the United States. Some are naturally lean, others oily; some have a delicate flavor, others are almost meaty. A fish’s skeletal structure helps to determine how it will be cut up for marketing, but its fat content is the most important distinction for cooking. The best way to pair a ...
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    The Cheese Making Process

    The Cheese Making Process
    For the most part, the only changes in cheese making since the early days have been in understanding how we can control the complicated interaction of various biological agents and processes, all integral to cheese making. The basic stages in the modern production process are: • Milk and its pretreatment, including homogenizing, pasteurizing, or heating • Acidification of milk, to change ...
    Rated: +8
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    Food Styling: Tools of the Trade Part II

    To follow up last month’s article on tools of the trade, here is a list of the larger items found in a food stylist’s kit. Heat Gun: This item is usually used to remove unwanted wall paper. The intense heat releases the glue under the paper in order to peel the paper from the wall. But in food styling it is ...
    Rated: +3
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    How to Judge, Prepare, and Marinate Foie Gras

    How to Judge, Prepare, and Marinate Foie Gras
    Foie gras is one of the world’s great luxury items. The earliest records of foie gras go back to 2500 B.C.E. The tombs dedicated to Ti, an Egyptian counselor to the Pharaoh, show scenes of Egyptians hand-feeding figs to geese. The first published recipe for pâté de foie gras appeared in Le Cuisinier Gascon, a cookbook published in 1747. Jean-Pierre Clause ...
    Rated: +5
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    Introduction to Being a Garde Manger

    Introduction to Being a Garde Manger
    The term garde manger had evolved quite a bit since its original usage. Initially denoting the storage area in which preserved foods such as hams, sausages, and cheeses were held, it now also indicates the station within a professional kitchen where these foods are prepared, the cooks and chefs that preserve these food, as well as the specialization in culinary arts ...
    Rated: +6
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    North Indian Culinary Secrets

    North Indian Culinary Secrets
    You’ve probably read the previous piece on North Indian breads. This article focuses on North Indian cooking, which includes cooking style, spices used, terminology and some common foods. North Indian cooking is nearly always quite spicy and uses a large number of spices in any given dish. The terms used for various dishes are normally descriptive of the food itself like ...
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    Menu Development for Healthy Cooking

    Menu Development for Healthy Cooking
    Before you can develop healthy recipes, you need to create a menu for your operation. The number and type of healthy offerings will depend on several interrelated factors that center around the type of establishment and your clientele. Chefs today work in a variety of non-restaurant venues. You may work at a spa, on a cruise ship, at a resort hotel, ...
    Rated: +9
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    The Ingredients for Preserving Foods

    The Ingredients for Preserving Foods
    From the editor: Food preservation techniques have always been intended to control the growth of microbes, halting the growth of some and encouraging the grown of others. This article summarizes the ingredients used to preserve foods. 1. Salt 2. Nitrates and Nitrites 3 Seasing and Flavoring Ingredients Salt The basic ingredient used by the garde manger to preserve foods is salt. ...
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    A Glass of Americana: Summer’s Tastiest Ice-Cream Floats

    A Glass of Americana: Summer’s Tastiest Ice-Cream Floats
    An ice-cream float is the quintessential summertime treat in the good ol’ U.S. of A. To enjoy one is to experience a bit of nostalgia for all things Norman Rockwell, even if you’re too young to know exactly who Mr. Rockwell is. The root beer–vanilla ice cream combination is a diner staple, and I don’t know anyone who doesn’t enjoy the ...
    Rated: +5
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    How to Roast Garlic

    How to Roast Garlic
    If you ask me, garlic is one of the great sources of joy in the universe; second only to the obligatory things like being a mom, being kind to others, a warm summer’s breeze and all that jazz. But when my five-year-old is tap dancing on my last nerve (as I’m told five-year-olds are wont to do), I’d be tempted to ...
    Rated: +3
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    Smoking Hot Chilies

    Smoking Hot Chilies
    I am sure that all of you have read about various chiles; be they fresh or dried. There are marvelous books out on the fiery subjects. This article is about one of the most common of the chilies: the Jalapeno Chile Pepper. This chile is used fresh in salsas, vinaigrettes, marinades, sauces, even stuffed and fried or eaten raw as a ...
    Rated: +4
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    Food Science Basics: Effects of Heat on Starches and Sugars

    Food Science Basics: Effects of Heat on Starches and Sugars
    Carbohydrates come in various forms, and each form reacts differently when exposed to heat. The two forms of carbohydrates that are of interest from a basic food science perspective are sugar and starch. When exposed to heat, sugar will at first melt into a thick syrup. As the temperature continues to rise, the sugar syrup changes color, from clear to light ...
    Rated: +10
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    Food Science Basics: Denaturing Proteins

    Food Science Basics: Denaturing Proteins
    At the molecular level, natural proteins are shaped like coils or springs. When natural proteins are exposed to heat, salt, or acid, they denature—that is, their coils unwind. When proteins denature, they tend to bond together, or coagulate, and form solid clumps. An example of this is a cooked egg white, which changes from a transparent fluid to an opaque solid. ...
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    Food Science Basics: Function of Cooking Fats

    Food Science Basics: Function of Cooking Fats
    Depending on their molecular structure, some fats are solid at room temperature, while others are liquid at the same temperature. Liquid fats are known as oils. Solid fats soften and eventually melt into a liquid state when exposed to heat. In addition to being a vital nutrient, fat performs a number of culinary functions. It provides a rich flavor and silky ...
    Rated: +3
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    States and Function of Water in Cooking

    States and Function of Water in Cooking
    Water is the primary substance in most foods. Fruits and vegetables contain up to 95 percent water; raw meat is about 75 percent water. At sea level, pure water freezes (becomes solid) at 32°F/0°C and boils (turns to water vapor or steam) at 212°F/100°C. Boiling leads to evaporation, which makes reduction possible. Water is a powerful solvent. Many vitamins, minerals, and ...
    Rated: +3
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    6 Things You Should Know About Chicken

    September is National Chicken Month! Don't miss out before it's too late! September is National Chicken Month and to celebrate, we worked with featured writer Danielle Turner to create a guide to the juicy, white meat we all love! First up, some quick facts on chicken! 1. Chicken Skin Color 2. Free Range Chicken 3. Determining "Doneness" 4. How Long ...
    Rated: +3
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    Chef Essentials: Brown Sauce

    Chef Essentials: Brown Sauce
    At one time the term brown sauce was equated exclusively with the classic sauces espagnole and demi-glace. Today it may also indicate jus de veau lié, pan sauces, or reduction style sauces based on a brown or fortified stock. Espagnole sauce is prepared by bolstering a brown veal stock with additional roasted mirepoix, tomato pinçage, and aromatics and thickening it with ...
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    Chef Essentials: White Sauce

    Chef Essentials: White Sauce
    The white sauce family includes the classic sauces velouté and béchamel, both produced by thickening a liquid with roux. A classic velouté, which translates from French as “velvety, soft, and smooth to the palate,” is prepared by flavoring a white stock (veal, chicken, or fish) with aromatics and thickening it with blond roux. In Escoffier’s time, a béchamel sauce was made ...
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    Chef Essentials: Tomato Sauce

    Chef Essentials: Tomato Sauce
    Tomato sauces of all sorts, from simply seasoned and fresh to complex and highly seasoned, are featured in cuisines around the world. Tomato sauce is a generic term used to describe any sauce that is based mainly on tomatoes. Tomato sauces can be made several ways. They may be raw or cooked, anywhere from ten minutes to several hours. In some ...
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    Chef Essentials: Hollandaise Sauce

    Chef Essentials: Hollandaise Sauce
    Since the largest part of hollandaise is butter, the success or failure of the sauce depends not only on skillfully combining egg yolks, water, acid, and butter into a rich, smooth sauce, but also on the quality of the butter itself. Hollandaise sauce is prepared by emulsifying melted or clarified butter and water (in the form of an acidic reduction and/or ...
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